This is work in progress. So Sebastian, if you read this - donÄt harshly judge it. Is is still just random patches of text that need proper configuration, editing and shortening.
- What is product Placement? Why is it used? How has it evolved over time? Is it effective?
- Why should it make an appearance in VR?
- What are we doing? And how do we measure it?
- Related work
- PP in VR so far.
- Presence and Immersion and Product Placement
- Interactivity and Product Placement
- what is left open?
- Hier das System beschreiben, in dem die Studie durchgeführt wird.
- Die einzelnen Bedingungen beschreiben?
- Experimental Design
- Was könnten SVs sein? TLX
- Conclusion and Future work
- Das kommt ganz auf die Ergebnisse an
 describes Product placement as "paid product message aimed at influencing [...] audiences via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a movie (or television program)". When used in video games, it has been proven to enhance recall of brands , let consumers perceive placed brands as good  and increase the positive attitude towards brands .  shows that presence ( "the sense of being there") also has an effect on the perception of placed products. As virtual reality is the media that might invoke the highest sense of presence , it seems logical that product placements are even more effective in VR. As virtual reality created by a head-mounted display is also highly immersive by substituting real-world visual and auditory stimuli for the virtual stimuli, a presented product can be moved into the user's focus while blocking external distractions. This study wants to look into the effects presence has on the effectivity of product placement.
Product Placement “[...] - is a marketing practice in advertising and promotion wherein a brand name, product, package, signage, or other trademark merchandise is inserted into and used contextually in a motion picture, television, or other media vehicle for commercial purposes.” Williams et al, 2011 (p. 2). It has been used since at least the 80s, when Reese's Peanut Butter Cups were used to form a trail in E.T. Since then it was used in more movies than we can count. While the movie industry is still the main focus of product placement, other kinds of media have also started to incorporate it. The reason why it is used in movies and other media is simple. Besides enhancing the realism of the media and providing funds for creators who otherwise couldn't afford their creation, it is effective.
Measuring Product placement effectivity:
There are several methods with which one can measure product placement effectivity.
While there are many valid means to measure it, the two most prolific measures are the memory for the displayed brands or products and the attitude towards them. Measuring attitude asks consumers about their attitude towards the displayed product before and after exposure. Measuring memory comes in two flavours: free recall and recognition. Free recall means, that consumers are asked to write down or mention freely all brands or product they remember from previous exposure. Recognition shows them several brands or products (among which some were not in the consumed media) and asks the consumers to indicate which of those they encountered.
The effects of Product Placement in Media:
So why has the prevalence of product placement steadily increased since it made it's first major appearacen in E.T? One reason for that is because it can help increase the realism of the media. A movie where we drink Coca-Cola is more realistic for us compared to a world where Costa-Cola is consumed.
separates the appearance of product placement in auditive or visual and adds a third dimension of plot-relevancy that belongs to the appearing placement. Visual placement is placement that can be seen in the scene, such as a poster or the product itself. Auditive placement is placement which can be heard without any visual indicator. Plot connection can refer to both modes of placement if they have a connection to the plot or are relevant in any way. Higher plot connection has a significant impact on the story or the plot while lower plot connection does not. In his further research  states that plot related visual product placement is as well recalled as auditive placement.
There has been little research on the effects of presence on the effectivity of product placements. While Daugherty  found that perceived presence increases the attitude towards the brand and the product knowledge,  researched into the effects of presence on the attitude and the recall of product placement. While there was no significant difference in attitude, the recall was significantly worse in HMD virtual reality than in stereoscopic 3D and a desktop application. However, there was no significant difference in measured presence between the three conditions so that the effect of presence remains unclear. While some studies focus on the factor of presence, most don't include the factor of immersion and the effect it has on product placement effectiveness.
 compared four conditions that differed in immersion (HMD, audio only, reality and desktop) and measured the amount of information participants could recall afterwards. There were neither significant differences in memory nor in presence between all conditions, but the results suggest that spatial memory was higher in the HMD condition and the probability of a recall response to be accurate was also higher in the HMD condition. This also suggests that immersion has an influence on spatial memory. So far, previous research has not yet looked into the effects of immersion on product placement effectiveness, even though it is closely related to presence and one of the main draws of virtual reality. To my best knowledge, no studies that compared recall and recognition in conditions that differed in immersion had significant differences in presence in those conditions.
Task Load measures the amount of cognitive and physical effort that is needed to solve a task. As  suggest, Task load negatively correlates with the ability to recall previously encountered brands as they blame the higher task load of their HMD VR condition for the lower ability to recall brands. In this study, task load will mainly be measured to account for distractor variables.
This study will expose participants to various brands in either VR or on desktop. The VR consition is further distributed into two con ditions with a lower and a higher visual angle. As the degree of presence is higher in VR than on desktop and correlates with the visual angle (citation needed), it should then mediate the number of correctly recalled and recognised brands. The VR and desktop cinditions will be as similar as possible concerning usability, appearance and interaction to allow for direct comparability. In this environment, participants will need to solve several puzzles while being exposed to product placement.
The ten featured brands in the environment are real global and popular brands. They are selected in such a manner that most participants will be familiar with them. To ensure that the selection of these brands includes familiar brands, a short prestudy that includes 20 brands will be done. The 10 brands that participants are most familiar with will the be included in the application.
In this study, brands will appear visually as either plot relevant or not. Plot relevant placements will appear as a puzzle that needs to be solved and plot-irrelevant brands will appear as posters in the background.
To answer our research questions, we developed a system that can show brand placements in four different settings: in VR, in a desktop setting, in a VR setting that works the same way as the desktop setting and a VR setting with the same shown visual angle as in the desktop setting. The only interaction in those settings consists of grabbing cubes with a Vive Controller and putting those cubes at the right position in a puzzle. The interaction is in all settings the same to make them comparable. That means, that the Vive Controllers are used and tracked not only in the VR settings, but also in the setting where the system is only used on desktop.
The brand placements are either interactive as a puzzle or static as a poster. If the puzzle displays a brand, the poster displays an image unrelated to any brand. When the poster shows a brand, the puzzle consists of a brand -unrelated image. That means that there is only one brand in the room at all times. To solve the puzzle, 9 cubes need to be arranged inside a rectangular container. Those 9 cubes each have one side where a ninth of an image is shown. By arranging the cubes in the right order, these sides result in a complete image.
On starting the application, the study conductor must choose a setting and enter the participant number. After that, the participant encounters a short tutorial, in which the interaction in the chosen setting is explained. To progress, the participant has to complete a puzzle. No brands are in this tutorial. After the tutorial, the real setting loads and the participant will be in one of the four settings.
In this setting, the participant wears a HMD. The setting consists of a simple room with a podest with nine cubes, a container for the cubes, a poster on the wall in the background and a mirror left to the participant's position. The head rotation and position are tracked.
This setting shows the same room as in the VR setting. The participant does not wear an HMD but sits in front of a monitor. As the head movement is not tracked, moving around in the room is not possible. The visual angle which the participant can see in is also smaller compared to the VR condition. As the participant can't turn to the right and look in the mirror in the virtual environment, a real mirror is standing next to the monitor in the same position as it would in the VR setting.
Desktop Setting in VR
This setting combines the VR and the desktop setting. Here, the participant finds himself in the same condition as in the desktop condition - except that the whole room is shown virtually.
VR with reduced visual angle
This setting is completely in VR but uses the same visual angle as the desktop condition.
In all settings the interaction works with tracked controllers. That means that the interaction is the same in all settings. A participant needs to put their hand with the tracked controller in contact with the cubes and to grab it. Furthermore, to place the cube in the puzzle the particpant has to move their hands with controller and the attached cube to the puzzle. In the settings where there is a monitor, the controllers are shown in the monitor. They move the same way and in the same space as they do in VR.
A participant has to finish 10 trials. In each of these trials, a puzzle needs to be solved. In half of these trails, the puzzle shows a brand, while in the other half the brand is on the poster. Which is which is randomly decided on the start of each trial. There are 10 brands and 10 non-brand images in total. When one is used in a trial, it can't be used again for the same participant.
We developed the system in the Unity x.x. engine with the SteamVR Plugin. While all settings use the Vive Pro Controllers, only the settings in VR use the HTC Vive Pro Head- Mounted Display. The monitor for the non-Vr settings is a xy monitor with a resolution of ya. The controllers are represented by their 3D model which look exactly like their real counterparts. The framerate was constantly higher than 90 Hz in all conditions.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
There are two research questions that this study strives two answer:
- How much do presence and mode of presentation affect the effectiveness of product placement?
- Do typical VR-Factors such as IVBO influence the effectiveness of product placement?
This study will focus solely on the first research question. If the study finds a significant difference between, a second study study answering the second research question is planned.
Following hypotheses are tested:
- Recall and Recognition are better for plot-relevant placements compared to non plot-relevant placements.
- There is a positive correlation between presence and number of correctly recalled and recognised items.
Experimental Design - Prestudy
A short online questionnaire is used to identify brands that are familiar to the participants. For this, a questionnaire containing 20 (or more) brands needs to be filled out. The brands are shown as their logo and a 5-Point likert scale is used to determine if the participants are familiar with the brands or not, using the same procedure as . The 9 brands with the highest familiarity are then used in the main experiment.
Experimental Design - Study
This study will be a between-subjects study where half the participants are randomly assigned to either the VR condition with high visual angle, the VR condition with low visual angle or to the desktop condition. All participants are students enrolled at the Julius- Maximilians Universität Würzburg. At the beginning of the study, the participants are informed about the procedure and have to give their written consent. After consenting, they have to fill out a questionnaire about their demographics and their experience with VR and games. Then, before starting the application, they fill out the simulation sickness questionnaire. There will be a short introduction and about the tasks they have to solve and a short tutorial explaining the interactions in the application.
In the application, the participants are asked to solve several puzzles while being exposed to one of two product placement conditions or a control condition with no brands. One of the product placement conditions will display a brand visually only on the wall as a poster. In this condition, the puzzle contains a picture that is not a brand. The other product placement condition will present the brand on the puzzle that has to be solved while the poster does not contain a brand. In each condition containing a placement, only one brand is encountered. In the control condition, both poster and puzzle don't contain a brand. The displayed brands are randomly taken from the 10 familiar brands identified in the pre-study. Each participant will encounter all three conditions three times in randomly assigned order. To measure the perceived presence during their exposure, the experimenter asks to what extent they feel present after completing half of the puzzles. Afterwards, the remaining puzzles have to be solved.
After solving all puzzles, the participants will fill out the simulation sickness questionnaire and the NTLX to measure their workload during the study. Then they will be asked to write down all brands they remember to measure the free recall. After the recall task, a questionnaire is given to measure the recognition of brands. In this questionnaire, several brands are shown that have and have not appeared during the experiment. The number of right brands on this questionnaire will not be the same number as the number of brands in the experiment, so that participants who remember how many brands they encountered during the experiment can't derive how many brands to select on the questionnaire.
Measures used are:
- Mid-Immersion Presence Questionnaire
- Nasa Task Load Index
- Simulation Sickness Questionnaire
- Free recall of brands
- Recognition of brands
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